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    Fixed and Variable Costs

    Fixed and Variable Costs:

    Another classification of costs is in terms of fixed and variable costs.

    Fixed cost are those costs which are independent of the quantity of the product manufactures.

    These include preparation costs such as the cost of tooling, setting up etc., taxes, insurance, interest on capital invested and inventory, technical services, offices, [...]

    Manufacturing Costs

    Manufacturing Costs:

    It has been pointed out in the definition of manufacturing process, that in order to survive, every manufacturing organization must continuously strive to produce its products at the lowest cost and with a quality that meets the customer requirements.

    The price paid by a customer for a commodity, called its selling cost is [...]

    Fundamental Concepts | Mechanization and Automation

    Mechanization and Automation

    Mechanization is a term used to designate an attempt towards minimization of human effort in production.

    In terms of machine tools, mechanization may imply automatic loading and unloading of components, selection and indexing of tools, setting of speeds, feed and so on.

    Automation is a further extension of mechanization and means complete [...]

    Fundamental Concepts | Simplification, Standardization and Specialization

    Simplification, Standardization and Specialization

    The concepts of simplification, standardization and specialization (known as three S’s) are closely interrelated and lead to interchangeability.

    These concepts can be effectively used in industry to minimize unnecessary activity, reduce inventory costs, simplify controls and improve product quality.

    All these factors lead to higher efficiency in production.


    Simplification is [...]

    Fundamental Concepts | Unit, Batch and Mass production

    Fundamental Concepts | Unit, Batch and Mass production:

    Unit or piece production:

    Unit or piece production is the manufacture of work pieces which are not to be produced again or are to be produced only after an indefinite time. The production may involve a large number of operations but a minimal of repetition.

    In order [...]

    Fundamental Concepts | Interchangeability

    Fundamental Concepts | Interchangeability:

    The greatest accomplishment of the twentieth century is said to be interchangeable part manufacture and mass production.

    Interchangeable manufacture means that any part or component picked at random from a manufactured lot should fit and function properly with any other part with which it is required to be fitted, picked at [...]

    Smoothness and Accuracy of Machined Surfaces

    Smoothness and Accuracy of Machined Surfaces: The smoothness and accuracy obtained on a machine surface depends upon many factors. The roughness produced on the surface is primarily due to the feed marks or ridges left by the cutting tool and the fragments of built-up edge left on the workpiece. The depth of feed marks depends [...]

    The Machine Tool

    The Machine Tool: Machining is done with the help of power driven non-portable machines known as machine tools. Machine tools change the shapes, size or finish of a job by removing excess material in the form of chips. Metal removal is effected by producing relative motion between the work-piece and a tool harder than the [...]

    Metal Cutting

    Metal Cutting: All metal cutting operations basically involve forcing a cutting tool with one or more cutting edges progressively through the excess material on the work-piece. The work-piece and the tool are securely held in a machine tool and its accessories while power is supplied to provide relative motion between the tool and the work-piece. [...]

    Classification of the Manufacturing Process

    Classification of the Manufacturing Process: The manufacturing process used in engineering industries basically perform one or more of the following functions: Change the physical properties of the work material Change the shape and size of the work piece. Produce desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Based on the nature of work involved these processes may [...]