Class 10th Mathematics – Real Numbers

Real Numbers

  • Introduction
  • Euclid’s Division Lemma
  • The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
  • Revisiting Irrational Numbers
  • Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions
  • Summary


We have already studied about irrational numbers in 9th class. Now, we will study the real numbers and also about the important properties of positive integers for Euclid’s division algorithm and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

Euclid’s division algorithm says us about divisibility of integers. It states that any positive integer ‘a’ can be divided by any other positive integer ‘b’ in such a way that it has ‘r’ remainder which is smaller than ‘b’. In fact it is a long division method. We also use it to compute the HCF of two positive integers.

The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic says us about the expression of positive integers as the product of prime integers. It states that every positive integer is either prime or a product of powers of prime integers. We have already known how to find HCF and LCM of positive integers by using the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic in previous class. Now, we will learn about irrationality of many numbers like etc. by applying this theorem. We know that the decimal representation of a rational number is either terminating or if repeating if not terminating. We have to use the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic to determine the nature of the decimal expansion of rational numbers.

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